Figure 1. Relative mortality risk from smoking, inhaling, snuffing, or abstaining from tobacco
Cigarette smoking risks:Bjartveit K, Tverdal A. Health consequences of smoking 1-4 cigarettes per day
Tobacco Control 2005; 14: 315-20, based on followup of 43,000 Norwegians from 1970s to 2002.
Cigar smoking risks: Cigars, health effects and trends. Monograph 9,
National Cancer Institute
Second hand smoke risk: Hill S, Blakely T, Kawachi I, Woodward A. BMJ 2004 988-89 (24 April). Based on fate of never smokers whether living with a smoker or not in 1996 NZ census.
Risks of snus Levy DT et al. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention 2004; 13: 2035-42.
Risks of nicotine gum. Murray RP, et al. Safety of nicotine polacrilex gum used by 3094 participants in the Lung Health Study. Chest 1996; 109: 438-45. Followed for 5 years, compared with 1900 controls. No increase in hospitalization or mortality in the nicotine gum chewers.