Figure 1. Relative mortality risk from smoking, inhaling, snuffing, or abstaining from tobacco

Mortality from Smoking, inhaling, snuffing or abstaining


Cigarette smoking risks:Bjartveit K, Tverdal A. Health consequences of smoking 1-4 cigarettes per day

Tobacco Control 2005; 14: 315-20, based on followup of 43,000 Norwegians from 1970s to 2002.

Cigar smoking risks: Cigars, health effects and trends. Monograph 9, National Cancer Institute USA,  1998, based on follow-up of  1 million US subjects for 12 years, including 22,000 cigar smokers, in Cancer Prevention Study I, 1959-72..

Second hand smoke risk: Hill S, Blakely T, Kawachi I, Woodward A. BMJ 2004 988-89 (24 April). Based on fate of  never smokers whether living with a smoker or not in 1996 NZ census. 

Risks of snus Levy DT et al. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention 2004; 13: 2035-42.

Risks of nicotine gum. Murray RP, et al. Safety of nicotine polacrilex gum used by 3094 participants in the Lung Health Study. Chest 1996; 109: 438-45. Followed for 5 years, compared with 1900 controls. No increase in hospitalization or mortality in the nicotine gum chewers.